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BOLAND-B23739

Monty's Independents (Garagemen) were an all-black baseball team in the newly formed 9-member "Community" league in 1931. The Community League played a 16-game season. The league was notable for having not only an all-black team, but an all-Italian team headed by Al Greco, an all-Japanese team from Fife, and an all-Slavic team. Other teams in the league were Jack & Jill, the Tacoma Red Men, the 10th Field Artillery, Steilacoom, and McKinley Hill. Monty's opened their season on May 10, 1931, against Steilacoom where they lost 31-3 in a 7-inning game. (TDL 5-10-31, 2-B) TPL-3688; G39.1-173; G53.1-007; G39.1-165;


Baseball players--Tacoma--1930-1940; African American baseball players;

WO 155538-A

Copy of customer print. Native Americans camping in hops field. Huddled together between three tents is a crowd of Native American families. They may have been employed at Ezra Meeker's hop fields prior to 1900. Photograph ordered by Washington State Historical Society.


Indians of North America; Hops;

W12-1

On July 31, 1936, promoter Rookie Lewis outdid himself by staging an authentic "Indian Wedding" as the evening's special attraction during his Walkathon (dance marathon) at the Century Ballroom in Fife. Chief White Eagle conducted the Native American wedding of So-To-Le-O and groom Qua-Le-Ales, with rites performed in sign language. Five different tribes participated in the wedding. The Walkathon was heavily attended by citizens of Tacoma and Seattle, since both cities had local ordinances forbidding such marathons. Approximately 30 people were pictured, first two rows were Native-Americans in costume, others may be some of the remaining participants in the Walkathon. Tribal blankets serve as backdrop. (T.Times 7-31-36, p. 4-article; 8-1-36, p. 5-article; www.historylink.org) (filed with Argentum)


Indians of North America--Clothing & dress; Weddings--Fife; Marathons--Fife;

T88-3

Japanese P.T. A. women at McCarver Intermediate School. The five women each wear kimonos and traditional footware. The ladies were playing hostess at the annual tea sponsored by the Japanese members of the organization. Typical Japanese delicacies were served at the tea including crisp rice cakes, flat cookies, rice candy and "semby," folded cakes with a printed fortune card enclosed. (T. Times 4/15/1936, pg. 11)


Japanese Americans--Tacoma; Parent-Teacher Association (Tacoma);McCarver Junior High School (Tacoma); Kimonos;

G5.1-011

In 1933, the Puyallup Tribe of Indians urged the federal government to purchase the outdated Tacoma Indian Hospital complex and build a new facility. The Puyallup Tribal Council met with newly elected U.S. Representative Wesley Lloyd in February 1933 to seek his support. After numerous delays, the new hospital was completed in 1943. Standing, left to right: Silas Meeker (Tribal Secretary), Frank Wrolson, Representative Lloyd. Seated, left to right: Benjamin Wright, William Davis, Silas Cross (Tribal Chairman), Dorothy Kellogg (assistant to Representative Lloyd). Frank Wrolson's last name was misspelled on the photograph.


Indians of North America, Puyallup Tribe; Cushman Indian Hospital (Tacoma); Hospitals--Tacoma--1930-1940; Meeker, Silas; Wrolson, Frank; Lloyd, Wesley; Wright, Benjamin; Davis, William; Cross, Silas; Kellogg, Dorothy;

T-145

"Indian Murals, Mural being painted at Cushman Hospital, Tacoma Arts, 1937." Artist Julius Twohy was photographed as he stood on a scaffold to create a mural across the 72 foot long dining room wall at the Cushman Hospital at 2002 East 28th Street. The artist was a member of the Ute tribe from the Uintah Basin in eastern Utah.

D54038-24

Hashimoto-Fujita wedding. A formal portrait of the bride and groom, their wedding party and four generations of their families. The large group stood in front of a Buddhist altar on November 12, 1950.


Japanese American families--Tacoma; Weddings--Tacoma--1950-1960; Wedding costume--1950-1960; Brides--1950-1960; Grooms (Weddings)--1950-1960; Altars--Tacoma;

D79967-1

December, 1953, graveside exposure of Japanese-American funeral for Mr. Yonezo Mizoguchi, 83 years of age. Mr. Mizoguchi lived at 1710 Tacoma Ave. So. He was born in Japan and came to the United States in 1908. He had lived in Tacoma for 6 years, after retiring in 1941 from 46 years of farming. He was a member of the Buddhist Church. He was survived by his wife Taka and three sons, Hiroto, Kanae and Charles M.- all of Tacoma, and one daughter Mrs. Masaye Shigeno and nine grandchildren. (TNT 12-15-1953, pg. 30) TPL-10139


Japanese Americans--Tacoma; Cemeteries--Tacoma; Funeral rites & ceremonies--Tacoma--1950-1960;

D12804-3

On May 16, 1942, an everyday game of marbles among a group of boys is captured by the photographer; except that these Japanese American boys, Tasuo Matsuda, Yoshinori Kondo and Hira Matsudo, are being held at "Camp Harmony," an assembly center in Puyallup for the evacuation and relocation of Seattle and Tacoma area residents of Japanese ancestry. Over 7,000 of them, including 1200 from Tacoma, were detained there from April 28 - September 12, 1942 before being shipped out to Minidoka Relocation Center in Southern Idaho. They lived in makeshift barracks divided into "apartments," one per family. The furnishings consisted of one army cot per person. There was no running water. Toilets, showers, mess halls and laundry room were communal and located a walk away. Privacy was non existent. The Japanese tried to keep life as normal as possible for the children, forming their own schools when the U.S. government provided none. (T. Times 4/30/1942, pg. 9)


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945; Marbles (Game); Children playing with marbles; Matsuda, Tasuo; Kondo, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Hira;

D12804-6

Mrs. Mito Kashiwagi and her mother-in-law, Mrs. Y. Kashiwagi, decorate a window in the barracks at "Camp Harmony" with sheer curtains in this photograph from May, 1942. In the Spring of 1942, more than 100,000 residents of Japanese ancestry from WA., OR., CA. , AZ. and AK. were forcibly rounded up and sent to internment camps. The hastily erected "Camp Harmony" in Puyallup served as a temporary assembly center, where 7,000 residents from the Seattle and Tacoma area waited while more permanent detention centers were erected. They lived in makeshift barracks, where each family was assigned one room, approximately 18 x 20, with a heating stove, bare light bulb and one window. The barracks had no running water. They shared communal showers, one for each 250 detainees, and toilets. The interns set about making these green wood boxes a home. Wood was scrounged to make furniture, curtains were sewn and hung at the windows, and drawings and pictures from calendars were tacked to the walls. (T. Times 4/30/1942, pg. 9)


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945; Kashiwagi, Mito--Family;

D12804-2

By the end of May of 1942, more than 7,000 people of Japanese ancestry from Seattle and the surrounding area, including 1200 from Tacoma, were being detained at "Camp Harmony," a temporary assembly center built hastily by the army in Puyallup. They stayed there for four months, until they were shipped to the Minidoka Relocation Center in Southern Idaho to wait for the end of the war. In this photograph taken May 16, 1942, Seattleites Beverly Higashida (2 years old), Lillian Fujihara, seven month old Wayne Kaniko and his mother Mrs. M. Kaniko all smiled for the camera. Whole families were sent to the camp, each assigned a one room "apartment." The Japanese proceeded to make a home out of the almost unbearable conditions, forming a government, school and devising entertainments. Their values remained intact and their spirits high. (T. Times 4/30/1942, pg. 9)


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945; Children riding bicycles & tricycles; Fujihara, Lillian; Higashida, Beverly; Kaniko, Wayne;

D12804-1

In the spring of 1942, four months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, more than 100,000 residents of Japanese ancestry were forcibly evicted from their homes in Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona and Alaska and sent to temporary assembly centers, from there to be sent to internment camps in remote inland areas to sit out the war. The Puyallup Assembly Center, hastily erected by the Army in less than 3 weeks and known as "Camp Harmony," was utilized from April 28- September 12, 1942. On May 16, 1942, two year old Beverly Higashida and Lillian Fujihara were getting acquainted with Mrs. M. Kaniko and her seven month old son Wayne. The pictured group was all from Seattle. By the end of May, more than 7,000 people were crowded into the camp. The stoic Japanese made the best of a bad situation, forming their own government, schools and entertainments. The worst aspect of the camp was boredom in the confined quarters. A call went out for recreational materials, such as young Wayne's tricycle. (T. Times 4/30/1942, pg. 9)


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945; Children riding bicycles & tricycles; Fujihara, Lillian; Higashida, Beverly; Kaniko, Wayne;

D12804-4

While interred at "Camp Harmony", in May of 1942, three unidentified Japanese Americans built their own furniture for their barracks "apartments." The Puyallup Assembly Center "Camp Harmony" had been constructed by the Army in less than 3 weeks. The living quarters were makeshift barracks divided into "apartments," consisting of a single room no larger than 18 x 20 feet in which a whole family of up to 7 would live. Furnishings consisted of one army cot per person. Each "apartment" had a stove for warmth, one bare bulb hanging from the ceiling by a wire for light and one window. There was no running water. Toilets and showers were communal with no privacy dividers, until the Japanese built them themselves. As Spring passed, the detainees scrounged wood and tools and began constructing rough tables and chairs. Homes were created in the rough surroundings.


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945; Carpentry;

D12804-5

The biggest enemy at "Camp Harmony" was boredom. Here a game of sandlot baseball has been organized to give this group some exercise and fresh air. More than 7,000 people of Japanese descent were interned at the camp. Men, women and children were crowded into a small living space. The orderly Japanese soon devised ways to keep their people occupied. Classes were mandatory for children and available for adults. Arts, crafts and recreational activities were devised. Entertainment was brought in; movies were shown. Every effort was made to make life appear ordinary.


Camp Harmony (Puyallup); Relocation camps--Puyallup; World War, 1939-1945--Relocation camps; Japanese Americans--Evacuation & relocation, 1942-1945;

D11917-1

In September of 1941, David Miller (far left) and Chief Jobe Charley (far right), the 81-year-old patriarch of the Yakima Nation's Great Council, came with their wives to the Federal court in Tacoma to plead the case for their treaty fishing rights. They came to argue that the Bonneville dam had backed up the waters of the Columbia River and its tributary, the White Salmon River, spoiling their "usual and accustomed" fishing grounds. Mr. Miller's wife Bessie Charley-Miller is seated next to him. (Additional identification provided by a family member)


Indians of North America--Tacoma--1940-1950; Judicial proceedings; Miller, David; Charley; Chief Jobe; Charley-Miller, Bessie;

D10547-B

A diminutive drill sergeant adjusts the helmet chin strap on one of the soldiers from Company B, 163rd Infantry during inspection. Company B was part of the Montana National Guard and was composed almost exclusively of Sioux Indians from the Fort Peck reservation. They were inducted into federal service in September of 1940 and were based out of Fort Lewis. After Pearl Harbor, they were among the first troops sent to the Pacific, where they served bravely for the duration of World War II. TPL-1955 (T. Times 12/11/1940, pg. 1)


Indians of North America--Sioux tribe; Montana National Guard, 163rd Infantry, Company B--Camp Murray; Ethnic groups--Indians of North America;

D10547-3

Nine Native American members of Company B 163rd Infantry, a Montana National Guard regiment composed primarily of Sioux Indians, stand for inspection at Camp Murray in December of 1940. This unit reformed in 1922, the original Company B had also been comprised of Native Americans and served in World War I. Partially because of the outstanding volunteer effort of Native Americans during World War I, in 1924 Congress granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. One result of this action was that native men between the age of 21 and 35 became eligible for the draft under the Selective Training and Service Act of September 16, 1940. However, most Native Americans served on a volunteer basis. More than 44,000 of them, out of a total population of less than 350,000, served with distinction between 1941 and 1945. (T. Times 12/11/1940, pg. 1)


Indians of North America--Sioux tribe; Montana National Guard, 163rd Infantry, Company B--Camp Murray; Ethnic groups--Indians of North America;

D10547-2

The regimental color guard for the 163rd Infantry with Company B at present arms. The group in the front is composed of, left to right, Corporal Red Thunder, Sergeant Skarie, Sergeant Hamilton and Corporal Red Elk. Company B hails from the Fort Peck Indian Agency in Northeast Montana and is composed almost solely of Sioux Indians. The original Company B was also formed of Native Americans and fought bravely in World War I before it was disbanded. This group from Montana is at Camp Murray for military exercises. (T. Times 12/11/1940, pg. 1)


Indians of North America--Sioux tribe; Montana National Guard, 163rd Infantry, Company B--Camp Murray; Ethnic groups--Indians of North America;

D10547-13

Members of the Montana National Guard, Company B, 163rd Infantry, 41st Division pose at attention for inspection. The company is composed primarily of Sioux from the Fort Peck Indian Agency. The company was inducted into federal service in September 1940 and sent to the Pacific. They were part of the most decorated army division in the Pacific Arena. (T.Times 12/11/1940 p.1) TPL-10595


Indians of North America--Sioux tribe; Montana National Guard, 163rd Infantry, Company B--Camp Murray; Ethnic groups--Indians of North America;

D10547-10

Members of Company B, 163rd Infantry pose at attention. Company B was composed almost entirely of Native Americans, mostly Sioux from the Fort Peck Indian Agency in Northeast Montana. They served in the Montana National Guard until they were inducted into national service in September of 1940. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, they were some of the first to be sent overseas, where they fought the Japanese on New Guinea and in the Philippines. Native Americans served in the Armed Forces at a disproportionately high rate in World War II. More than 44,000 served, out of a total population of less than 350,000, most of them as volunteers. Native Americans have the highest record of military service per capita when compared to other ethnic groups. (T.Times 12/11/1940 p.1)


Indians of North America--Sioux tribe; Montana National Guard, 163rd Infantry, Company B--Camp Murray; Ethnic groups--Indians of North America;

D7623-5

Three Japanese American women and a child watch a team of four women perform a traditional Japanese dance during a dress rehearsal for the Japanese-American Citizen's League's second annual carnival and bazaar, to be held on November 12, 1938 at the Fife High School. The group is attired in kimonos and posed in front of a background of cherry blossoms. The watching group on the left is composed of Haruko Yaguchi (standing), Fugiye Sasaki (seated), Lillian Mizukami (kneeling) and three year old Arlene Sakahara. The dancers are, left to right, Betty Sasaki, Dorothy Norisada, Miyo Yoshida and Amy Marumoto. (T. Times 11/10/1938, pg. 20; 11/14/1938, pg. 3)


Kimonos; Japanese-American Citizen's League (Tacoma); Japanese Americans--Fife--1930-1940; Ceremonial dancers; Japanese Americans--Dance;

D7623-4

In November of 1938, five unidentified young ladies dressed in traditional kimonos rehearsed a ceremonial dance staged among artificial flowering cherry trees. They were members of the 18 person Puyallup Valley Japanese American Citizen's League dance group. The group performed November 12th at "Japan Night," a bazaar hosted at Fife High School. This was the second year that the Citizen's League had sponsored this bazaar, carnival and dance, intended to acquaint Tacoma and Valley people with the group's activities and culture. A mixture of traditional Japanese and American food was served, followed by the evening's entertainment of ceremonial dances performed in front of a background of cherry blossoms and red, white and blue hangings. Over 1,000 people turned out to glimpse the culture of Old Japan. (T. Times 11/10/38, p. 20)


Kimonos; Japanese-American Citizen's League (Tacoma); Japanese Americans--Fife--1930-1940; Ceremonial dancers; Japanese Americans--Dance;

D7623-3

Members of the Puyallup Valley Japanese-American Citizens League dance group. They will be performing a ceremonial dance in traditional Japanese dress during "Japan Night", a Japanese bazaar, to be held at Fife High School on November 12, 1938. The second annual bazaar, carnival and dance was held to acquaint Tacoma and Valley people with the young group's activities and culture. Over 1,000 people attended, the majority of which were not of Japanese heritage. (T. Times, 11/10/1938, p. 20; 11/14/1938, pg. 3)


Kimonos; Japanese-American Citizen's League (Tacoma); Japanese Americans--Fife--1930-1940; Ceremonial dancers; Japanese Americans--Dance;

D7623-2

Group portrait of eighteen young women, and a child, who are members of the Puyallup Valley Japanese-American Citizens League dance group. They will be performing a ceremonial dance in traditional Japanese dress during "Japan Night," a Japanese bazaar, to be held at Fife High School on November 12, 1938. Over 1,000 people attended the event that offered a glimpse into the island empire's ancient culture. In the afternoon, girls in kimonos served Japanese noodles, rice curry and "osushmis" as well as American salads, pies and hot dogs. In the evening, a program of the dances of old Japan was performed before a background of cherry blossoms and red, white and blue hangings. (T. Times, 11/10/1938, p. 20; 11/14/1938, pg. 3).


Kimonos; Japanese-American Citizen's League (Tacoma); Japanese Americans--Fife--1930-1940; Ceremonial dancers; Japanese Americans--Dance;

Spring 2022 ELA Classes

Over three days during the Spring 2022 English Language (ELA) courses at Tacoma Community House, 17 oral history interviews were conducted by the Community Archives Center of the Tacoma Public Library. Tacoma Community House offers services to many immigrant and refugee populations in the Puget Sound area. These personal stories contribute to Tacoma’s current historical record and provide insight into the lives of underrepresented immigrant and refugee groups. Ten questions were provided to the speakers and allow us to learn about their contexts, viewpoints and experiences.

The questions included:
1) Where are you from? Where is your home country? Tell us about it.
2) Share your document or cultural/family object. What does it mean to you? Why?
3) Who is your family? Describe them. Share your family photograph(s).
4) How did you get to Tacoma, Washington? When? Why?
5) What did you think the Unites States would be like? How was it different?
6) What was your first American experience?
7) What food do you enjoy? Share your favorite recipe.
8) What is your favorite music or song? Why is it your favorite?
9) Why do you want to share your story? What do you want people to learn from you?
10) What do you hope for your future? What do you hope the future will bring?

999-3

Indian Festival. Photograph ordered by the News Tribune. Girls in native American costumes pose in a grassy area, with the Puget Sound in the background. (filed with Argentum)


Costumes--Native American;

866-2

In 1934, Hisasha & Ruby Kumasaka received $10,000 each in the will of 80-year-old logger Sweny Smith. Ruby, 7, and Hisasha, 5, were the children of Mr. and Mrs. Tom Kumasaka of 1706 Broadway. For eight years, the family had taken Smith into their home and taken care of him. Despite his Norwegian heritage, Smith observed the Japanese holidays, attended the Buddhist church and followed the family's customs. He spoke of the two children as his grandchildren. On his deathbed in St. Joseph's Hospital, he told the children that he was going to the Great Beyond to watch over them and their growth, and directed them to a safety deposit box in the Washington Building that contained his will leaving everything to them for their kindness. The Kumasaka family, unaware that the frugal logger had any wealth, expected only a meagre amount, but found that the will left $10,000 to each of the children. (T. Times 10/31/1934, pg. 6)


Japanese Americans--Tacoma; Children--Tacoma--1930-1940; Kumasaka, Ruby; Kumasaka, Hisasha;

807-9

Two year old Marjorie Abraham Charlie kneels in the grass and straw next to a tent at the annual Native American gathering in Puyallup Valley at Audoma Park, two miles from Puyallup, for the hop picking season. The Native Americans tribes of Washington and British Columbia gathered annually at hop and berry picking time to socialize with each other and to help keep alive their ancient customs and games. (T. Times 8/30/1934, pg.1)


Charlie, Marjorie Abraham; Indians of North America; Migrant agricultural laborers--Puyallup--1930-1940; Migrant laborers--1930-1940; Hops; Girls--Puyallup--1930-1940;

807-6

In August of 1934, these two unidentified young Native American girls joined other members of their tribes to pick hops in the Puyallup valley. Beginning around 1925 Audoma Park, near Alderton 2 miles from Puyallup on the Orting Road, became an official gathering place for tribes from throughout Washington and British Columbia. Here ancient games were played and the sound of traditional chants mixed with the strains of swing bands as the younger tribe members tried out the newest dance steps. (T. Times 8/30/1934, pg. 1+)


Indians of North America; Migrant agricultural laborers--Puyallup--1930-1940; Migrant laborers--1930-1940; Hops;

807-4

Native American mothers, each holding a baby wrapped in blanket, sit on a bench under a tree. They have travelled to the Puyallup Valley with other members of their tribes to pick hops. This is an ancient gathering for the Native Americans of Washington and British Columbia. The tribes represented are the Kowegians, Sheeshats and West Coast Tribes from Vancouver Island, Yakimas from Eastern Washington, Clallams, Neah Bays and Quillayutes from Port Angeles, Taholahs and Quinaults from Grays Harbor, Chahalises from farther inland, Skagits, Laconners, Snohomishes, and Lummis from the northern part of the state and the Puyallups and Nisquallys living in the valley. (T. Times 8-30-1934, pg. 1+)


Indians of North America; Mothers & children--Puyallup--1930-1940; Infants--Puyallup--1930-1940;

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